Heat and temperature
 
Initial Definitions

Temperature is a number that is related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. If temperature is measured in Kelvin degrees, then this number is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.

Heat is a measurement of the total energy in a substance. That total energy is made up of not only of the kinetic energies of the molecules of the substance, but total energy is also made up of the potential energies of the molecules.

More About Temperature

So, temperature is not energy. It is, though, a number that relates to one type of energy possessed by the molecules of a substance. Temperature directly relates to the kinetic energy of the molecules. The molecules have another type of energy besides kinetic, however; they have potential energy, also. Temperature readings do not tell you anything directly about this potential energy.

Temperature can be measured in a variety of units. If you measure it in degrees Kelvin, then the temperature value is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in the substance. Notice we did not say that temperature is the kinetic energy. We said it is a number, if in degrees Kelvin, is proportional to the average kinetic energies of the molecules; that is, if you double the Kelvin temperature of a substance, you double the average kinetic energy of its molecules.

More About Heat

Heat is energy.

Heat is the total amount of energy possessed by the molecules in a piece of matter. This energy is both kinetic energy and potential energy.

When heat, (i. e., energy), goes into a substance one of two things can happen:

1. The substance can experience a raise in temperature. That is, the heat can be used to speed up the molecules of the substance. Since Kelvin temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecules in a substance, an factor increase in temperature causes an equal factor increase in the average kinetic energy of the molecules. And if the kinetic energy of the molecules increase, the speed of the molecules will increase, although these increases are not directly proportional. The kinetic energy of a body is proportional to the square of the speed of the body.

2. The substance can change state. For example, if the substance is ice, it can melt into water. Perhaps surprisingly, this change does not cause a raise in temperature. The moment before melting the average kinetic energy of the ice molecules is the same as the average kinetic energy of the water molecules a moment after melting. Although heat is absorbed by this change of state, the absorbed energy is not used to speed up the molecules. The energy is used to change the bonding between the molecules. Changing the manner in which the molecules bond to one another constitutes a change in potential energy. Heat comes in and there is an increase in the potential energy of the molecules. Their kinetic energy remains unchanged.

So, when heat comes into a substance, energy comes into a substance. That energy can be used to increase the kinetic energy of the molecules, which would cause an increase in temperature. Or that heat could be used to increase the potential energy of the molecules causing a change in state that is not accompanied by an increase in temperature.

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